3G (Third Generation) is the generation of standards and technology of mobile phones, after 2G. It is based on the standard family of International Mobile Telecommunications program, “IMT-2000″ (by the ITU, the International Telecommunication Union). 3G technology gives mobile users a wider range of services with advanced capabilities, and increased network speed. These services shall include VoIP (Internet telephony), Video conferencing and broadband internet access in a mobile environment.
Typical rates are between 5 and 10 Mb / s (megabits per second) in terms of magnitude and are similar to broadband speeds on fixed connections (DSL and cable).
3G technologies have been developed in 2001 in Japan by 3GPP and first put into use in Asia around 2002, followed by the USA. The World Administrative Radio Conference has developed 230 MHz – spectrum released at 2 GHz for 3G networks. This allowed a mobile user when a wireless connection with the following average speeds:
- 144 Kbps in a car (or other during fast movement)
- 384 Kbps if one is out walking
- 2 Mb / s at a fixed location
Standards on 3G
3G technologies are the answer to the specification IMT-2000 of the International Telecommunication Union. In Europe and Japan, we selected the standard UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) technology based on W-CDMA. UMTS is managed by the 3GPP organization, also responsible for GSM, GPRS and EDGE.
3G is also planned network evolution 2G and 2.5G. GSM and TDMA IS-136 are replaced by UMTS networks cdmaOne evolve to CDMA2000. EvDO is a very common network evolution 2G and 2.5G based on CDMA2000
3G networks offer greater security compared to its predecessors 2G. Enable the EU to authenticate the network you are connecting, you can ensure that the network is the intentional and not an imitation. At the conference BlackHat 2010 a hacker showed (with a budget of U.S. $ 1,500). One could get cell phone numbers and even listen to the calls of GSM phones nearby; this was achieved by posing as a base (satellite receiver / transmitter) of the AT & T in this case. 3G networks use the block cipher KASUMI instead of the previous stream cipher A5 / 1. Still, we have identified some weaknesses in the KASUMI code.
In addition to the security infrastructure of 3G networks, security is provided from one extreme to another when accessing applications such as IMS framework, although this is not something only done in the 3G.
Although 3G was successfully introduced to users around the world, there are some issues debated by 3G providers and users:
- 3G licenses are expensive.
- Many differences in the conditions of license.
- Many companies have large amounts of debt, making it a challenge to build the necessary infrastructure for 3G.
- Lack of support to operators in trouble.
- Cost of 3G phones.
- Lack of support for the new 3G wireless services by 2G mobile users.
- Lack of coverage because it is a new service.
- High prices of 3G mobile services in some countries, including access to the Internet.